Pre-Employment Testing

As the job market becomes increasingly competitive, many employers are resorting to pre-employment testing to determine the best candidate for the job. While resumes provide employers with some insight into the capability of applicants, a relevant test can really help narrow the field. Unfortunately, there are also several disadvantages to pre-employment testing. Additionally, there are strict laws prohibiting discriminatory or disrespectful questions from being asked.


Pre-employment tests provide employers with a number of advantages. Some such perks, include:

• Employers can identify positive traits within candidates, such as integrity, competence, motivation, and reliability

• Employers can identify negative traits within candidates, such as substance dependency and inclinations toward theft

• Provides further insight into candidates

• Can help determine differences between candidates who seemed equal after evaluating their resumes and undergoing an interview.


Unfortunately, pre-employment testing is also disadvantageous for many employers. Some drawbacks include:

• Test results are only one factor of the hiring process. Employers should base their decision on other factors, such as their experience, qualifications, and interview.

• All tests administered by employers must be certified for validity and reliability

• Test results are not necessarily indicative of applicants’ ability to perform their job. Instead, tests focus on applicants’ potential.

• Testing conditions must be fair and consistent for every candidate

• Testing may eliminate some candidates who are highly qualified, but do not perform well on tests

• Applicants may react poorly to the test. Additionally, if they believe the test was discriminatory, they can legally challenge the test.


When writing tests, employers must be aware of the laws pertaining to employment testing. Any questions which require applicants to divulge something about themselves that could result in discrimination is illegal. For example, employers cannot ask about an applicant’s:

• Age-Some employers discriminate against older applicants because they assume that the older they are, the more pay they will request.

• Race/Ethnicity-Race and ethnicity are irrelevant factors when applying for a job. This law protects minorities from discrimination.

• Disability status-Some employers will discriminate against persons with disabilities, even if they will not impede the applicant’s job performance. The Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits employers from asking questions pertaining to an applicant’s disability status.

• Sexual preference-Because sexual preference is private and irrelevant to one’s job performance, employers are prohibited from inquiring. This law protects members of the LGBT community who might otherwise be discriminated against.

The Importance of Regular Home Improvement

Home improvement, by definition, is making changes to one’s home by making improvements on the house’s looks. Home improvement is usually done by professional contractors, handymen, and even the house owner himself. Home improvement is important because real estate’s value appreciates more if a property is well-maintained. Home improvement is seen by many as unnecessary cost. However, losing value of a real estate is usually caused by neglect in a property’s maintenance. Therefore, in the long run, regular maintenance is crucial for the property’s value to appreciate.

Regular home improvement jobs and renovations will surely make your current living conditions more favorable. People do not easily notice that some areas of the house need improvement. In the long run, regular maintenance will reduce the serious structural damages to your property. It is also important to note that there are different maintenance schedules for different areas of your house. For instance, plumbing should be checked monthly. Ovens, heating systems, smoke detectors, and the like should also be checked monthly to prevent unfortunate disasters. The garden area should be maintained regularly and should undergo rigorous maintenance every four months. This is to prevent insects and termites infestation which can cause significant damage in infrastructure. The landscape of a house should also be in good appearance to help preserve your property’s value. Refrigerators should be checked every three to four months. Check for faulty or loose wiring and avoid energy overload. The roof, on the other hand, should be checked at least every six months. Check for shingles and leaks and take care of them right away. Watch out for blocked gutters as this can lead rainwater to go inside your house. If your house is made mainly of wood, have a regular termite exterminator team visit your house.

Aside from these standard areas in the house that need improvement, remodeling or renovating is also a good idea. It can also add value to real estate. Remodeling can be as simple as changing the paint color in your living room or laying a different color of carpet in your bedroom. Something this simple can make significant changes in your house’s ambience. Renovating can be as major as tearing down the common wall of two rooms to make them one big room. Tearing down walls creates a bigger space which can be used for many purposes. Additional extensions can also be done. Additional space that can be used as garage space is useful. Home improvement tasks that require massive construction should be done by professional contractors. Make a list on what you want changed inside your homes and consult with a team of contractors. This way, you will have an idea on the costs that will be incurred as well as the extent of the repairs and improvements you can do.

Home improvement is important because essentially, it is considered taking care of your home. Aside from the additional value it gives your property, preventive maintenance and remodeling is always good to decrease future damages in your property.

History and Components of a Modern Mainframe Computer

Mainframe computers are critical for some of the largest corporations in the world. Each mainframe has more than one modern processor, RAM ranging from a few megabytes to multiple-score gigabytes, and disk space and other storage beyond anything on a microcomputer. A mainframe can control multiple tasks and serve thousands of users every second without downtime.

The chief difference between mainframes and other computing systems is the level of processing that takes place. Mainframes are also different in terms of data bandwidth, organization, reliability, and control. Big organizations-banking, healthcare, insurance, and telecom companies, etc.-use mainframes for processing critical commercial data.

In this article, we discuss the evolution of mainframe computers and their components.

History of mainframe computers

IBM developed a critical part of mainframe computing, the Automatic Sequenced Controlled Calculator (ASCC) for arithmetic operations, in 1944. From the late 1950s through the 1970s, several companies manufactured mainframes: IBM, Burroughs, RCA, NCR, General Electric, and Sperry Rand, for example. Since then, System / 390 by IBM is the only kind of mainframe in use. It evolved from IBM's System / 360 in 1960.

An Early mainframe occupied a huge space. New technologies have drastically reduced the size and cost of the hardware. A current-generation mainframe can fit in a small closet.

Components of a modern mainframe computer

Like a PC, a mainframe has many components for processing data: operating system, motherboard or main board, processor, controllers, storage devices, and channels.

• Motherboard: The motherboard of a mainframe computer consists of a printed circuit that allows CPU, RAM, and other hardware components to function together through a concept called "Bus architecture". The motherboard has device slots for input cards and cable interfaces for various external devices. Where PC motherboards use 32- or 64-bit buses, mainframes use 128-bit buses. General instructions regarding the internal architecture help the motherboard connect to the other devices and retrieve data using binary computation.

• Processor: A CPU acts as the central processing point in mainframe architecture and includes an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) for performing arithmetic calculations. It also works as a controller for the bus architecture and handles traffic and data requests. The processing power of mainframes is much higher compared to PCs, so that they can handle huge amounts of data.

• Storage devices: Storage devices are for entering, retrieving, storing, and recording data. Many are external devices, such as hard drives, tape drives, and punch card readers, all connected to terminals of the mainframe and controlled by the CPU. Their capacity for data storage can be hundred or even thousands of times that of a PC.

• Communication controllers: Communication controllers allow remote computers to access a mainframe. With the help of networks, LAN or WAN, communication controllers establish connections with various devices, perform data transmission over communication channels, and keep track of users at terminals.

• Channels: The "channels" are the cables used to connect the CPU and the main storage to other parts of the system and make sure that data is moved in a systematic way without losing its integrity.

Modern mainframes have advanced features such as expanded service management capabilities, cross-platform integration facilities, etc. And so are suitable for critical data center operations. The cost of maintaining modern mainframes is much less compared to older models.

How Do Hemorrhoids Affect Your Overall Health?

Most people are too embarrassed to tell their doctors about their hemorrhoids. Also called piles, hemorrhoids are masses that accumulate around the rectum. Due to straining or pressure, veins protrude from thin membranes, forming pouches. These can be so painful and irritating that even normal tasks can become stressful ordeals. What is the impact of hemorrhoids to your overall health?

Internal hemorrhoids are those formed inside the rectum, and sometimes extend outside the anus when dilated. External hemorrhoids are lumps that can be seen by the naked eye. Digital rectal exams (DRE) administered by doctors can detect lumps that aren’t visible, but a common symptom of hemorrhoids involve streaks of blood in the stool or toilet paper.

Hemorrhoids can be hereditary in nature. If you have family members with the same problem, then yours is probably genetic. Frequent diarrhea and constipation can increase pressure on the main vein leading to your lower extremities. Straining can impede normal circulation in the body, which weakens the walls of the veins, forming hemorrhoids.

Hemorrhoids, both internal and external, are painful. Prolonged standing and sitting can cause irritation, pain and even inflammation in the affected areas. It is uncomfortable and can distract from work. Worse, there are instances when hemorrhoids can really take a toll on your health.

There are times where a blood clot may form and cause severe pain in the area. This condition requires immediate intervention. Since hemorrhoids can bleed, anemia may also be a problem. Bowel movements, and scratching can lead to severe blood loss in some cases. Untreated anemia will result in fatigue, poor nutrition and body weakness – all of which can get in the way of your work even further.

As stated before, hemorrhoids can also protrude outside the body. When this happens, there’s a tendency that blood supply may be cut off. This condition is called strangulated hemorrhoids, which can lead to tissue death. Infection is the primary concern when this happens.

Hemorrhoids require immediate medical intervention. Topical creams/ointments and painkillers may be prescribed to numb the pain. Your doctor may also suggest soaking the affected area in warm water to relax the area and prevent irritation.

Most hemorrhoids are mild in nature, and sometimes go away on their own. But if you don’t pay close attention, they may lead to complications. Always keep in mind that prevention is better than cure, so keep moving, get some exercise, and eat only the right stuff.